All praise is due to Allaah, Lord of all the worlds. Peace and blessings of Allaah be upon the Messenger of mercy, Muhammad son of ‘Abdullaah, as well as his family and companions and all those who follow their path till the Day of Resurrection.
It is a familiar trend these days that whenever any of the Islamic festivals and seasonal acts of worship is around the corner, we see Muslims, particularly the youth – may Allaah swell their ranks – seeking to know the correct exact manner such act of worship should be performed according to the Sunnah. This phenomenon is, indeed, a very positive one for it is as an actualization of our scholars’ ceaseless supplication that may Allaah bring the Muslims back to their religion in the most beautiful way.
A case in this regard is the question on the position of Zuhr prayer when Jumu’ah and ‘Eid fall on the same day. This recurs every few years (it is expected this year) and the controversy regarding whether Zuhr must be observed or not by those who have already observed Eid prayer recurs with it. This short essay attempts to discuss the opinions of the scholars – the early and the contemporary ones – on this issue and their proofs; and points out the most preponderant opinion in the light of the textual and logical proofs.
Before we do that, let us firstly highlight the points upon which the scholars agree on this topic:
• Whoever performed Eid prayer, and then performed the Jumu’ah prayer does not have to perform Zuhr again.
• Attending Jumu’ah prayer is compulsory upon an eligible Muslim who did not attend ‘Eid prayer.
• Whoever attended neither ‘Eid nor Jumu’ah prayer must observe the Zuhr prayer.
Point of Contention
Must a Muslim upon whom Jumu’ah is obligatory (i.e. a healthy, adult, male resident) who has already attended ‘Eid prayer but did not attend Jumu’ah prayer pray Salatudh-Dhuhr?
As a first step towards better understanding of this issue, let us look at the authentic narrations recorded from the Prophet ﷺ and his companions on it, the interpretation of some of which gave birth to the controversy in the first place.
1. Ibn Majah recorded, with a sound chain of transmission, in his Sunan on the authority of Ibn ‘Abbas that Allaah’s Messenger ﷺ said, “Two Eids (celebrations) come together in this day of yours. So, whoever wishes can made do with Eid only and that will be sufficient for him and he is no longer obliged to attend the Jumu’ah. But Allaah willing, we are going to observe the Jumu’ah.”
2. An-Nasaa’ee recorded on the authority of Wahb ibn Kaysaan: “Two Eids (one of them is Jumu’ah) fell on the same day during the reign of Ibn Az-Zubayr, and he delayed his coming out until the latter part of the morning. He then came out and gave a long sermon. He then came down (from the pulpit) and led the people in Eid prayer. He did not observe Jumu’ah prayer that day. When Ibn ‘Abbas was informed of that he said, ‘He has acted according to the Sunnah.’
3. Abu Dawud recorded on the authority of ‘Ata who said: “Eidul-Fitr fell on a Friday during the reign of Ibn Az-Zubayr, and he said, ‘Two celebrations fall on the same day.’ So, he combined both and observed them in two Rak’ahs late in the morning. He observed no other prayer after that until he prayed ‘Asr.”
4. Abu Dawud also recorded on the authority of ‘Ata who said: “Ibn Az-Zubayr led them in prayer on an Eid day that fell on a Friday in the forenoon. We then went for Jumu’ah but he did not come out to us (to give khutbah and lead Jumu’ah prayer). So, we prayed alone. Ibn ‘Abbas was then in Ta’if, and when he came back we informed him of that and he said, ‘He has acted according to the Sunnah.’
5. Ibn Khuzaymah recorded on the authority of An-Nu’maan ibn Basheer that the Prophet ﷺ would recite in the two ‘Eids ‘Sabbih-isma rabbikal A’la’ and ‘Hal ataaka hadeethul-ghaashiyah’; and if one of the Eids fell on a Friday, he would recite both Surahs in both prayers.”
6. Ahmad, Abu Daawood, An-Nasaa’ee, Ibn Maajah and Ad-Daarimee recorded on the authority of Zayd ibn Arqam that Mu’awiyah ibn Abi Sufyaan asked him if he had witnessed an Eid that fell on a Friday during the time of Allaah’s Messenger ﷺ to which he answered in the affirmative. He then asked him, “What did the Prophet ﷺ do?” He answered, “He performed the ‘Eid prayer and then permitted people to be absent from Jumu’ah saying, ‘Whoever wishes to observe it can do so.'”
7. Ibn Maajah and At-Tabaraanee (in Al-Mu’jam Al-Kabeer) recorded on the authority of Ibn ‘Umar that two Eids Al-Jumu’ah and Eidul-Fitr fell on the same day during the lifetime of Allaah’s Messenger ﷺ and he led the people in Eid prayer and then faced them and said: “O people! You have indeed attained blessing and reward. We are going to observe the Jumu’ah prayer. Whoever wishes to attend it with us can do so and whoever wishes to go back to his family is free to do so.”
8. Al-Bukhaaree and Imam Maalik recorded on the authority of Abu ‘Ubayd who said: “I attended a ‘Eid with ‘Uthmaan ibn ‘Affaan (may Allaah be pleased with him), and that was on a Friday. He led the people in prayer and then gave a sermon in which he said, ‘O you people! You are blessed to have two Eids on this day of yours. Therefore, whoever wishes to wait for Jumu’ah from among the dwellers of Al-‘Awaali (the outskirts of Al-Madeenah) can do so, and whoever wishes to go back home, then I have permitted him to do so.”
9. ‘Abdur-Razzaq in his Musannaf (and Ibn Abi Shaybah, with similar wordings) recorded on the authority of ‘Alee ibn Abi Taalib (may Allaah be pleased with him) that he said, when a ‘Eid fell on a Friday during his reign, “He who wishes to witness Jumu’ah with us can do so and he who wishes to stay back at home can do so.”
Based on their interpretations of the above reports, opinions of the scholars on whether or not Dhur is waived for someone who has already attended the Eid prayer that fell on a Jumu’ah, can be narrowed down into three:
The First Opinion
Absenting from Jumu’ah is permissible for whoever has attended ‘Eid prayer and he is also free not to observe the Zuhr prayer.
Points of evidence of the holders of this opinion from the above narrations are:
• In ‘Ataa’s narration reported by Abu Daawood, Ibn Az-Zubayr did not come out to them at the time of Jumu’ah; and Ibn ‘Abbaas, when he was informed of that, approved it saying it was of the Sunnah.
• In the same narration by ‘Ataa, Ibn Az-Zubayr did not observe any other prayer until he prayed ‘Asr. This apparently shows that he made do with the two Rak’ahs he performed late in the morning.