The theory of Predeterminism and Freewill have been subjects of discourse for ages and will continue to be. The religion of Islam quite presents a compatibilistic view that suggests the possibility of Predeterminism and Freewill co-existing at the same time. This can be seen from the Hadith:
“Narrated ‘Ali [radhi-yAllahu ‘anhu]: We were in the company of the Prophet (ﷺ) and he said,
“There is none among you but has his place written for him, either in Paradise or in the Hell-fire.” We said, “O Allah’s Messenger! Shall we depend (on this fact and give up work)?” He replied, “No! Carry on doing good deeds, for everybody will find easy (to do) such deeds as will lead him to his destined place.”
Then the Prophet (ﷺ) recited: “As for him who gives (in charity) and keeps his duty to Allah and fears Him, and believes in Al-Husna. We will make smooth for him the path of ease …” (V.92: 5-10) [Sahih Al-Bukhari, 6/4947 (O.P.472)]”
In contrast to incompatibilism that rejects the idea of the co-existence of Predeterminism and Freewill, the Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) in response to the Sahaba’s curiosity, presents a form of Predeterminism that encapsulates Causal and Nomological Determinism.
Predeterminism becomes logical, or at worst, paradoxical, but not illogical when we think about the fact everything we have ever invented came from our universe. It took us years to start writing, discover oil, go into space, invent cars and phones, yet, the resources for our PAST, PRESENT, and FUTURE inventions have been deposited in our universe thousands of years ago.
Everything that led to our enlightenment and civilization predated us. What was/is/ needed was/is that NECESSITY to explore our universe. Our own planet itself, EARTH, has in abundance, enough resources to sustain us.
Who knows our future past, present, and future problems and deposited these resources? If we call the universe, “Mother”, is the universe itself conscious?
These resources used to invent solution to human problems, are they random or whoever deposited them saw through our future ahead of us and knew what they can be used for, leaving us with the intellect to explore as necessity demands?
Charlie Chaplin said, “the good Earth is rich and can provide for everyone”. How true! However, not only is the Earth rich enough to sustain us, it’s mouth is wide enough to swallow our bodies.
Allah says, “Al-‘Alaq 96:3
ٱقْرَأْ وَرَبُّكَ ٱلْأَكْرَمُ
Recite, and your Lord is the most Generous
ٱلَّذِى عَلَّمَ بِٱلْقَلَمِ
Who taught by the pen
عَلَّمَ ٱلْإِنسَٰنَ مَا لَمْ يَعْلَمْ
English – Sahih International
Taught man that which he KNEW NOT.
How much do we know compared to what we are set to know and those things we may never know not of?
Bashir Lucas Samson Lukman