(“Do not set up rivals unto Allah…”)
Allah the Almighty said: “Do not set up rivals (Al-Andad) unto Allah (in worship) while you know (that He Alone has the right to be worshipped).” (2:22)
With reference to the above quoted verse, Ibn Abbas (May Allah be pleased with him) said: “Al-Andad means Shirk. It is as inconspicuous as a black ant moving (crawling) on a black stone in the darkness of night. It is to swear: ‘by Allah and by your life’ and ‘by my life’. It is also to say: ‘Had there not been this little dog or the duck in the house, the thief would have entered.’ Or, like the statement of a man to his companion: ‘By Allah’s and yours will,..’ or ‘Had it not been Allah and so-and-so’, etc. Do not mention anybody with Allah because all of it is Shirk.” [It has been reported by Ibn Abi Hatim]
Umar bin Al-Khattab (May Allah be pleased with him) narrated that Allah’s Messenger (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) said: “Whoever swears by other than Allah has disbelieved or committed Shirk.” [At-Tirmidhi graded this Hadith as Hasan (fair) and Al-Hakim has graded it Sahih (sound)].
Ibn Mas’ud ((May Allah be pleased with him)) said: “To swear by Allah while lying is more loved by me than to swear by other than Him while speaking truth.” Hudaifah (May Allah be pleased with him) narrated that the Prophet (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) said: “Do not say ‘With the will of Allah and with the will of that person’ but rather say ‘With the
will of Allah and then with -the will of that person.’ ” [Abu Dawud reported this Hadith with a Sahih chain]
It is related about Ibrahim Nakhyee that he detested to say: “I seek refuge in Allah and in you,” but it is permitted to say: “I seek Allah’s refuge first and then yours.” He said, “Say ‘If not Allah and then so-and-so’ and do not say ‘If not Allah and so-and-so'”
Important issues of the Chapter
1) Explanation of Al-Andad as is mentioned in verse of Al-Baqarah (2:22).
2) The Companions (May Allah be pleased with him) used to explain that the verses revealed about major Shirk include minor Shirk also.
3) To swear by other than Allah is Shirk.
4) To swear by other than Allah truthfully (believing such) is a far greater sin than to swear by Allah to a lie.
5) The difference between the conjunctions ‘wa’ (and) and ‘thumma’ (then).