What should one say when slaughtering the Udhiyah (sacrifice of animal during Eid al-Adha.)?
Is there a specific du’aa’ that I can recite when slaughtering the udhiyah?.
Praise be to Allaah.
The Sunnah for one who wants to slaughter the udhiyah is to say when slaughtering it:
Bismillaah, wa Allaahu akbar, Allaahumma haadha minka wa laka, haadha ‘anni (or if it is being offered on behalf of someone else, haadha ‘an [fulaan]), Allaahumma taqabbal min [fulaan] wa aali [fulaan].
(In the name of Allaah, Allaah is most great. O Allaah, this is from You and to You. This is on my behalf (or if it is being offered on behalf of someone else, This is on behalf of [So and so]). O Allaah, accept (this sacrifice) from [So and so] and the family of [So and so]) – here he should mention his name instead of [fulaan] or [So and so].
What is obligatory here is to say Bismillaah; the rest is mustahabb but is not obligatory.
Al-Bukhaari (5565) and Muslim (1966) narrated that Anas said: The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) sacrificed two horned rams that were white speckled with black. He slaughtered them with his own hand, said Bismillaah and Allaahu akbar, and put his foot on their necks.
Muslim (1967) narrated from ‘Aa’ishah that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) ordered that a horned ram be brought to him so that he could sacrifice it. He said, “O ‘Aa’ishah, give me the knife.” Then he said, “Sharpen it on a stone.” So she did that, then he took it and took the ram, and he lay it down and prepared to slaughter it. He said, “In the name of Allaah, O Allaah accept (this sacrifice) from Muhammad and the family of Muhammad and the ummah of Muhammad,” then he sacrificed it.
Al-Tirmidhi (1521) narrated that Jaabir ibn ‘Abd-Allaah said: I was present with the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) on the day of al-Adha at the prayer place. When he had finished his khutbah he came down from his minbar and a ram was brought which the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) slaughtered with his own hand. He said, “In the name of Allaah, Allaah is Most Great (Bismillaah, wa Allaahu Akbar). This is on behalf of myself and on behalf of those of my ummah who have not offered a sacrifice.” Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Tirmidhi.
In some reports the words “O Allaah, this is from You and to You” are added. See Irwa’ al-Ghaleel, 1138, 1152.
Allaahumma minka (O Allaah, from You) means this sacrifice is a gift and provision that has reached me from You. Laka (to You) means, it is sincerely for You alone.
See al-Sharh al-Mumti’, 7/492.
It is Sunnah to make the animal face the qiblah at the time of slaughter.
If a man wants to slaughter a chicken, does he have to make it face toward the qiblah or may he slaughter it no matter what direction it is facing?.
Praise be to Allaah.
The Sunnah with regard to slaughter is to make the animal face towards the qiblah, but that is not obligatory. If he slaughters it facing any other direction, his slaughter is halaal, but he has omitted a Sunnah.
Ahmad (15022), Abu Dawood (2785) and Ibn Maajah (3121) narrated that Jaabir ibn ‘Abd-Allaah (may Allah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allaah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) sacrificed two rams on the day of Eid. When he turned them to face towards the qiblah he said: “Verily, I have turned my face towards Him Who has created the heavens and the earth Haneefa (Islamic Monotheism, i.e. worshipping none but Allaah Alone), and I am not of Al-Mushrikoon .Verily, my Salaah (prayer), my sacrifice, my living, and my dying are for Allaah, the Lord of the ‘Aalameen (mankind, jinn and all that exists). He has no partner. And of this I have been commanded, and I am the first of the Muslims’ [cf. al-An’aam 6:79, 162-163]. O Allaah, from You and to You, on behalf of Muhammad and his ummah. In the name of Allah and Allah is most great.” Then he slaughtered them.
The isnaad of this hadeeth may reach the level of hasan as Shu’ayb al-Arna’oot said in Tahqeeq al-Musnad.
It says in al-Mawsoo’ah al-Fiqhiyyah (21/196), explaining the etiquette of slaughtering:
The slaughterer should face towards the qiblah and the animal’s neck should be turned to face the qiblah, because Ibn ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) disliked eating the meat of any animal that had been slaughtered facing any direction other than the qiblah, and no one among the Sahaabah disagreed with him. That is narrated in some reports from Ibn Sireen and Jaabir ibn Zayd. End quote.
See: al-Mughni, 3/221
It says in Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah (22/477) concerning one who slaughters an animal facing a direction other than the qiblah and claims that making it face the qiblah applies only when slaughtering the hadiy:
If the situation with regard to slaughter is as you say, then the slaughter is sound and valid in terms of it being halaal, but the slaughterer is going against the Sunnah by not turning to face the qiblah with the animal at the time of slaughter, and he is doing wrong by not accepting the advice, and he is mistaken in his claim that making it face the qiblah applies only when slaughtering the hadiy, because the Sunnah is to turn towards the qiblah with the animal at the time of slaughter in all cases, whether it is a hadiy or a sacrifice or otherwise. End quote.
It also says (1/67): It is mustahabb for the slaughterer to face towards the qiblah and to make the animal also face towards the qiblah, because it is the noblest of directions, and because turning to face the qiblah is mustahabb in acts of worship, except in cases where there is evidence to indicate otherwise. The fact that this is mustahabb is particularly emphasized if it is a hadiy or udhiyah. It is narrated from ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) that the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allaah be upon him) said: “Offer your sacrifices and be of good cheer, for there is no Muslim who turns his sacrifice to face the qiblah but its blood and dung and wool will be hasanaat that are present on his scales on the Day of Resurrection.” And he used to say: “Spend a little, you will be rewarded a great deal.” This hadeeth was narrated by ‘Abd al-Razzaaq in al-Musannaf, and al-Tirmidhi, Ibn Maajah and al-Bayhaqi narrated something similar. Although the imams of hadeeth suggested that its isnaad is weak, it may be acted upon with regard to encouraging good deeds. Hence Ibn ‘Umar and Ibn Sireen regarded it as makrooh to eat meat that was not facing the qiblah at the time of slaughter. Limiting oneself to saying Bismillaah and letting the animal face any direction at the time of slaughter is forsaking that which is better, but the slaughter is still valid. This was the view of al-Qaasim ibn Muhammad, al-Nakha’i, al-Thawri, Ibn al-Mundhir and others. End quote.
And Allaah knows best.
Meat slaughtered by a mute person
In the slaughterhouse there is a mute butcher. We want to know how he can say the name of Allaah over the animal being slaughtered.
Praise be to Allaah.
Ibn Qudaamah said:
He (al-Khirqi) said: if he is mute, then he may point to the sky.
Ibn al-Mundhir said: all of the scholars from whom we gained knowledge were agreed that meat slaughtered by a mute person is halaal. (Those scholars) include al-Layth, al-Shaafa’i, Ishaaq and Abu Thawr. This is also the view of al-Shu’bi, Qutaadah and al-Hasan ibn Saalih.
Since this is proven, then he should point towards the sky, because this gesture will take the place of speaking. His pointing towards the sky indicates that he intends to mention the One Who is above the heavens.
Al-Shu’bi said something similar to this.
This is also indicated by the hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah, that “A man brought a non-Arab slave woman to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah, I have to free a believing slave; shall I free this woman?’ The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) asked her: ‘Where is Allaah?’ She pointed to the sky. He said, ‘Who am I?’ She pointed to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) then to the sky, meaning that he was the Messenger of Allaah. The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: ‘Set her free, for she is a believer.’” This was narrated by Imaam Ahmad, and by al-Qaadi al-Barti in their Musnads.
The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) ruled that she was a believer on the basis of her pointing towards the sky, meaning that Allaah is above the heavens. So this should be sufficient as a sign of mentioning the name of Allaah.
So if he (the mute butcher) makes a gesture that indicates mentioning the name of Allaah, and that is known, then that is sufficient.
Does the meat of a slaughtered animal become haraam if it is slaughtered in front of another animal?
The fuqaha’ are unanimously agreed that part of the etiquette of slaughtering is not to slaughter one animal in front of another.
See: al-Mawsoo‘ah al-Fiqhiyyah, 10/221
This is part of the beauty of Islam with its mercy and kindness and good manners.
Ibn Qudaamah (may Allah have mercy on him) said:
It is makrooh to slaughter one sheep when another is looking on. End quote.
And it says in ‘Awn al-Ma‘bood:
He should not handle it violently, or drag it to slaughter violently, or slaughter it in the presence of another.
Shaykh Ibn Baaz (may Allah have mercy on him) said:
It is makrooh to slaughter (an animal) when another is looking on. End quote.
Majmoo‘ Fataawa Ibn Baaz (23/73-74)
Shaykh ‘Abd al-Muhsin al-‘Abbaad said:
He should not slaughter it with a tool or cause pain to it as he is slaughtering it. Also he should not slaughter it in front of another, because this is torture. End quote.
Sharh Sunan Abi Dawood, 14/212
If one animal is slaughtered in front of another, this does not mean that eating its meat is haraam, if the slaughter is done in the proper Islamic manner, because all he has done thereby is something makrooh, and such actions do not make the meat haraam.
With regard to slaughtering animals together in front of one another, as is the case in mechanised slaughterhouses, there is nothing wrong with it, because one animal does not see another when it is being slaughtered; rather they are all slaughtered at the same time with one movement of the machine.
The scholars of the Standing Committee for Issuing Fatwas said: It is permissible to slaughter animals using modern machines so long as the blades are sharp and they cut the throat and the windpipe.
If the machine slaughters a number of chickens at one time, then it is acceptable to mention the name of Allah once by the one who is operating the machine when he starts it, with the intention of slaughtering, so long as the person who is operating the machine is a Muslim or a kitaabi (i.e., a Christian or a Jew). End quote.
Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah, 22/463.
And Allah knows best.
How old should the sacrificial animal be?
Is there a specific age for the sacrificial animal? Is it permissible to slaughter a cow as a sacrifice when it is one and a half years old?.
Praise be to Allaah.
The scholars (may Allaah have mercy on them) are agreed that Islam has prescribed the age for sacrificial animals and it is not permissible to slaughter animals that are younger than that. Whoever slaughters an animal that is younger than that, it does not count as a sacrifice.
See al-Majmoo’ by al-Nawawi, 1/176.
For example, al-Bukhaari (5556) and Muslim (1961) narrated that al-Bara’ ibn ‘Aazib (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: A maternal uncle of mine whose name was Abu Burdah slaughtered his sacrifice before the prayer, and the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said to him: “Your sheep is a sheep for meat (i.e., not a sacrifice).” He said: “O Messenger of Allaah, I have a young goat (according to another report: I have a young she-goat) (according to a report by al-Bukhaari (5563): I have a jadha’ah which is better than two musinnahs – shall I sacrifice it?)” The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Sacrifice it, but that will not be valid for anyone but you.” According to another report: “It will not count for anyone after you.” Then he said: “Whoever slaughters (the animal) before the prayer has slaughtered it for himself, and whoever slaughters it after the prayer has offered the sacrifice and followed the way of the Muslims.”
This hadeeth indicates that a jadha’ah of goats (young goat) is not sufficient as a sacrifice. We will explain below what jadha’ah means.
Ibn al-Qayyim said in Tahdheeb al-Sunan:
The phrase “It will not count for anyone after you” is a definitive statement that it would not count for anyone after him. End quote.
Muslim (1963) narrated that Jaabir (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Do not slaughter anything but a musinnah, unless it is too hard for you, in which case you should slaughter a young sheep (jadha’ah min al-da’n).
This hadeeth also clearly states that only a musinnah can be slaughtered, except in the case of sheep, where a jadha’ah may be offered.
Al-Nawawi said in Sharh Muslim:
The scholars said:
A musinnah is a thaniyyah of anything, camel, cow or sheep, or anything over that age. This clearly indicates that it is not permissible to slaughter a jadha’ah of any animal in any circumstances, except sheep. End quote.
Al-Haafiz said in al-Talkhees, 4/285:
The apparent meaning of the hadeeth suggests that a jadha’ah of sheep is not permissible except if one cannot find a musinnah. Scholarly consensus says something different, so this hadeeth should be understood as referring to what is better. So it is mustahabb not to slaughter anything but a musinnah. End quote.
Al-Nawawi said in Sharh Muslim:
It says in ‘Awn al-Ma’bood:
This interpretation is the one which is correct. End quote.
Then he quoted some of the ahaadeeth which indicate that it is permissible to offer a jadha’ah of sheep as a sacrifice, such as the hadeeth of ‘Uqbah ibn ‘Aamir (may Allaah be pleased with him) who said: “We slaughtered a jadha’ah of sheep with the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him).” Narrated by al-Nasaa’i, 4382. al-Haafiz said: Its isnaad is qawiy (strong). It was classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Nasaa’i.
It says in al-Mawsoo’ah al-Fiqhiyyah (5/83) concerning the conditions of udhiyah:
The second condition is that it should have reached the age of sacrifice, by being a thaniyyah or older in the case of camels, cows and goats, and jadha’ah or older in the case of sheep. A sacrifice does not count if the animal is younger than a thaniyyah except in the case of sheep, or if it is sheep that is younger than a jadha’ah…. The fuqaha’ are agreed upon this condition, but they differed as to what is meant by thaniyyah and jadha’ah. End quote.
Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:
I do not know of any dissent with the view that a jadha’ah of goats or anything else that is offered as a sacrifice apart from sheep is not permissible. Rather it is permissible to sacrifice a thaniyyah or anything older than of all of these. It is permissible to sacrifice a jadha’ah of sheep according to the Sunnah. End quote from Tarteeb al-Tamheed, 10/267.
Al-Nawawi said in al-Majmoo’ (8/366):
The ummah is agreed that with regard to camels, cows and goats, nothing will do except a thaniyyah, and with regard to sheep, nothing will do but a jadha’ah, and that these are all acceptable. But some of our companions narrated that Ibn ‘Umar and al-Zuhri said: A jadha’ah of sheep does not count. It was narrated from ‘Ata’ and al-‘Awzaa’i that a jadha’ah of camels, cows, goats and sheep does count. End quote.
With regard to the stipulated age of sacrificial animals, the scholars differed concerning that.
A jadha’ah of sheep is a sheep that has reached the age of six months, according to the Hanafis and Hanbalis. According to the Maalikis and Shaafa’is it is a sheep that has reached the age of one year.
The musinnah (or thaniyyah) of goats is one that has reached the age of one year according to the Hanafis, Maalikis and Hanbalis. According to the Shaafa’is, it is one that has reached the age of two years.
The musinnah of cows is one of the has reached the age of two years according to the Hanafis, Shaafa’is and Hanbalis; according to the Maalikis it is one that has reached the age of three years.
The musinnah of camels is one that has reached the age of five years according to the Hanafis, Maalikis, Shaafa’is and Hanbalis.
See Badaa’i’ al-Sanaa’i’, 5/70; al-Bahr al-Raa’iq, 8/202; al-Taaj wa’l-Ikleel, 4/363; Sharh Mukhtasar Khaleel, 3/34; al-Majmoo’, 8/365; al-Mughni, 13/368.
Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in Ahkaam al-Udhiyah:
The thaniyyah of camels is one that has reached the age of five years. The thaniyyah of cows is one that has reached the age of two years. The thaniyyah of sheep is one that has reached the age of one year. The jadha’ah is one that has reached the age of half a year. It is not acceptable to offer anything younger than a thaniyyah in the case of camels, cows and goats, or anything younger than a jadha’ah in the case of sheep.
It says in Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah (11/377):
The shar’i evidence indicates that a sheep that has reached the age of six months may count as a sacrifice, as may a goat that has reached the age of one year, a cow that has reached the age of two years, and a camel that has reached the age of five years. Anything younger than that does not count as a hadiy or udhiyah. This is what the Qur’aan refers to when it says (interpretation of the meaning): “sacrifice a Hady (animal, i.e. a sheep, a cow, or a camel) such as you can afford” [al-Baqarah 2:196], because the texts of the Qur’aan and Sunnah explain one another. End quote.
Al-Kaasaani said in Badaa’i’ al-Sanaa’i’ (5/70):
These ages, as defined in sharee’ah, are minimum ages, not maximum ages. Sacrificing an animal that is younger than that is not permitted, but if an animal that is older than that is sacrificed, it is permitted and is better. It is not permitted to sacrifice a lamb, kid (young goat), calf or young camel, because the ages of animals that we have mentioned were narrated in sharee’ah and these were not mentioned among them. End quote.
So it is clear that slaughtering a cow that is younger than two years old will not count as a sacrifice according to any of the imams.
And Allaah knows best.