Analyzing Suratul Maidah, Quran Chapter 5 verses 27-31

Allah describes the evil end and consequence of transgression, envy and injustice in the story of two sons of Adam, Habil and Qabil.

One of them fought against the other and killed him out of envy and transgression, because of the bounty that Allah gave his brother and the sacrifice that he sincerely offered to Allah was accepted. The murdered brother earned forgiveness for his sins and was admitted into Paradise, while the murderer failed and earned a losing deal in both the lives.

Allah said,

وَاتْلُ عَلَيْهِمْ نَبَأَ ابْنَيْ ادَمَ بِالْحَقِّ

And recite to them the story of the two sons of Adam in truth;

meaning, tell these envious, unjust people, the brothers of swine and apes from the Jews and their likes among mankind, the story of the two sons of Adam, Habil and Qabil, as many scholars among the Salaf and later generations said.

Allah’s statement,
(in truth),

means, clearly and without ambiguity, alteration, confusion, change, addition or deletion.

إِذْ قَرَّبَا قُرْبَانًا فَتُقُبِّلَ مِن أَحَدِهِمَا وَلَمْ يُتَقَبَّلْ مِنَ الاخَرِ قَالَ لَاَقْتُلَنَّكَ قَالَ إِنَّمَا يَتَقَبَّلُ اللّهُ مِنَ الْمُتَّقِينَ

When each offered a sacrifice, it was accepted from the one but not from the other. The latter said to the former:”I will surely, kill you.” The former said:”Verily, Allah accepts only from those who have “Taqwa”.

Several scholars among the Salaf and the later generations said that Allah allowed Adam to marry his daughters to his sons because of the necessity of such action.

They also said that in every pregnancy, Adam was given a twin, a male and a female, and he used to give the female of one twin, to the male of the other twin, in marriage.

Habil’s sister was not beautiful while Qabil’s sister was beautiful, resulting in Qabil wanting her for himself, instead of his brother. Adam refused unless they both offer a sacrifice, and he whose sacrifice was accepted, would marry Qabil’s sister.

Habil’s sacrifice was accepted, while Qabil’s sacrifice was rejected, and thus what Allah told us about them occurred.

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn Abbas said — that during the time of Adam — “The woman was not allowed in marriage for her male twin, but Adam was commanded to marry her to any of her other brothers. In each pregnancy, Adam was given a twin, a male and a female. A beautiful daughter was once born for Adam and another one that was not beautiful. So the twin brother of the ugly daughter said, `Marry your sister to me and I will marry my sister to you.’

He said, `No, for I have more right to my sister.’

So they both offered a sacrifice. The sacrifice of the one who offered the sheep was accepted while the sacrifice of the other (the twin brother of the beautiful daughter), which consisted of some produce, was not accepted. So the latter killed his brother.”

This story has a better than good chain of narration.

The statement,

إِنَّمَا يَتَقَبَّلُ اللّهُ مِنَ الْمُتَّقِينَ

Verily, Allah accepts only from those who have “Taqwa” (who fear Allah in their actions).

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Abu Ad-Darda’ said,

“If I become certain that Allah has accepted even one prayer from me, it will be better for me than this life and all that in it. This is because Allah says,

إِنَّمَا يَتَقَبَّلُ اللّهُ مِنَ الْمُتَّقِينَ
(Verily, Allah accepts only from the those who have (Taqwa)

The statement,

لَيِن بَسَطتَ إِلَيَّ يَدَكَ لِتَقْتُلَنِي مَا أَنَاْ بِبَاسِطٍ يَدِيَ إِلَيْكَ لَاَقْتُلَكَ إِنِّي أَخَافُ اللّهَ رَبَّ الْعَالَمِينَ

“If you do stretch your hand against me to kill me, I shall never stretch my hand against you to kill you, for I fear Allah; the Lord of all that exists.”

Qabil’s brother, the pious man whose sacrifice was accepted because of his piety, said to his brother, who threatened to kill him without justification… To be continue

Bashir Habeeb


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