IMPACTS OF ISLAM IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE
From the earliest days of Islam great value was attached to men of knowledge, the Muslim Arabs reached the highest summit in mathematics, physics, history, astronomy, chemistry geography engineering, literature, and social sciences, which are the bases for all those sciences, educated valuable scholars, experts and masters who are still being remembered with deep reference today and became the teachers of the entire world.
History shows that, the rise of Muslims which later translated the rise of the world to the zenith of civilization in a period of four decades was based on Islam’s emphasis on learning. This according to scholars is obvious when one takes a look at the Qur’an and the traditions of Prophet Muhammed which are filled with references to learning, education, observation and the use of reason.
Are those who have knowledge and those who have no knowledge alike?
Only the men of understanding are mindful (Qur’an 39:9).
There are many hadith (sayings of the prophet) that encourage seeking of knowledge, below are two.
:SahihAbu Huraira reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:مَنْ سَلَكَ طَرِيقًا يَلْتَمِسُ فِيهِ عِلْمًا سَهَّلَ اللَّهُ لَهُ طَرِيقًا إِلَى الْجَنَّةِWhoever travels a path in search of knowledge,Allah makes easy for him a path to Paradise.Source: Sahih Muslim 2699,
Abu Ad-Darda reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:مَنْ سَلَكَ طَرِيقًا يَطْلُبُ فِيهِ عِلْمًا سَلَكَ اللَّهُ بِهِ طَرِيقًا مِنْ طُرُقِ الْجَنَّةِ وَإِنَّ الْمَلَائِكَةَ لَتَضَعُ أَجْنِحَتَهَا رِضًالِطَالِبِ الْعِلْمِ وَإِنَّ الْعَالِمَ لَيَسْتَغْفِرُ لَهُ مَنْ فِي السَّمَوَاتِ وَمَنْ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَالْحِيتَانُ فِي جَوْفِ الْمَاءِ وَإِنَّ فَضْلَ الْعَالِمِ عَلَى الْعَابِدِ كَفَضْلِ الْقَمَرِ لَيْلَةَ الْبَدْرِ عَلَى سَائِرِ الْكَوَاكِبِ وَإِنَّ الْعُلَمَاءَ وَرَثَةُ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ وَإِنَّ الْأَنْبِيَاءَ لَمْ يُوَرِّثُوا دِينَارًا وَلَا دِرْهَمًا وَرَّثُوا الْعِلْمَ فَمَنْ أَخَذَهُ أَخَذَ بِحَظٍّ وَافِرٍWhoever travels a path in search of knowledge,then Allah will easy for him the path to Paradise. Verily, the angels lower their wings for the seeker of knowledge. Verily, the inhabitants of the heavens and the earth, even the fish in the depths of the water, will seek forgiveness for the scholar. Verily, the virtue of the scholar over the worshiper is as the superiority of the moon over the stars. Verily, the scholars are the inheritors of the Prophets. They do not leave behind gold or silver coins, but rather they leave behind knowledge. Whoever has taken hold of it has been given anabundant share.Source: Sunan Abu Dawud 3641.
Through education, Muslims became founder of most major accomplishments in the world which later leads to western and world civilization in Medicine, technology, geometry, mathematics, chemistry, physics, urbanization, art,poetry and moral culture.
It has also been established that, the Islamic empire for more than 1000 years was said to have remained the most advanced civilization in the world
TERRORISM IN THE BIBLE
ISLAMIC TERMS IN SCIENCE
A number of scientific terms used in European languages today are of Arabic origin e.g “chemistry” from “Kemya”, “algebra” from “Al-jebir” e.t.c For it was the Muslim Arabs who taught this sciences to the world.
THE GREATEST SCIENTIFIC ADVANCES FROM THE MUSLIM WORLD
1 The elephant clock (below)
This centrepiece of the exhibition is a three-metre high replica of an early 13th-century water clock and one of the engineering marvels of the medieval world. It was built by al-Jazari, and gives physical form to the concept of multiculturalism. It features an Indian elephant, Chinese dragons, a Greek water mechanism, an Egyptian phoenix, and wooden robots in traditional Arabian attire. The timing mechanism is based on a water-filled bucket hidden inside the elephant.
2 The camera obscura
The greatest scientist of the medieval world was a 10th century Arab by the name of Ibn al-Haytham. Among his many contributions to optics was the first correct explanation of how vision works. He used the Chinese invention of the camera obscura (or pinhole camera) to show how light travels in straight lines from the object to form an inverted image on the retina.
3 Al-Idrisi’s world map
This three-metre reproduction of the famous 12th-century map by the Andalusian cartographer, Al-Idrisi (1100-1166), was produced in Sicily and is regarded as the most elaborate and complete description of the world made in medieval times. It was used extensively by travellers for several centuries and contained detailed descriptions of the Christian north as well as the Islamic world, Africa and the Far East.
4 The Banu Musa brothers’ “ingenious devices”
These three brothers were celebrated mathematicians and engineers in ninth-century Baghdad. Their Book of Ingenious Devices, published in 850, was a large illustrated work on mechanical devices that included automata, puzzles and magic tricks as well as what we would today refer to as “executive toys”.
5 Al-Zahrawi’s surgical instruments
This array of weird and wonderful devices shows the sort of instruments being used by the 10th-century surgeon al-Zahrawi, who practised in Cordoba. His work was hugely influential in Europe and many of his instruments are still in use today. Among his best-known inventions were the syringe, the forceps, the surgical hook and needle, the bone saw and the lithotomy scalpel.
6 Ibn Firnas’ flying contraption (above)
Abbas Ibn Firnas was a legendary ninth-century inventor and the Da Vinci of the Islamic world. He is honoured on Arabic postage stamps and has a crater on the moon named after him. He made his famous attempt at controlled flight when, aged 65, he built a rudimentary hang glider and launched himself from the side of a mountain. Some accounts claim he remained airborne for several minutes before landing badly and hurting his back.
CARLY FIORNA THE CEO OF “HEWLETT PACKARD” GAVE A SPEECH, DEFINING THE IMPACTS OF MUSLIMS IN SCIENCE.
It has been stated that, some of the best and most eloquent praises of science came from the pens of Muslims scientists who consider their work to be acts of worship. The same motives which led to the establishments of Al-Azhar (800 AD) the first university in the world. As Campbell describes it, the European medical system is Arabia not only in origin, but also in its structure. The Muslims are the intellectual forbearers of the Europeans.
Furthermore, Carly Fiorina, the CEO of Hewlett Packard gave a speech defining the relevance of leadership in today’s world which stated that, We are Often Unaware of our Indebtedness to the Islamic Civilization.
CEO of Hewlett Packard stated that, there was once a civilization that was the greatest in the world. It was able to create a continental super-state that stretched from ocean to ocean, and from northern climes to tropics and deserts. Within its dominion lived hundreds of millions of people, of different creeds and ethnic origins. One of its languages became the universal language of much of the world, the bridge between the peoples of a hundred lands. Its armies were made up of people of many nationalities, and its military protection allowed a degree of peace and prosperity that had never been known. The reach of this civilization’s commerce extended from Latin America to China, and everywhere in between. And this civilization was driven more than anything, by invention. Its architects designed buildings that defied gravity. Its mathematicians created the algebra and algorithms that would enable the building of computers, and the creation of encryption. Its doctors examined the human body, and found new cures for disease. Its astronomers looked into the heavens, named the stars, and paved the way for space travel and exploration.
Its writers created thousands of stories. Stories of courage, romance and magic. Its poets wrote of love, when others before them were too steeped in fear to think of such things.
When other nations were afraid of ideas, this civilization thrived on them, and kept them alive. When censors threatened to wipe out knowledge from past civilizations, this civilization kept the knowledge alive, and passed it on to others.
While modern Western civilization shares many of these traits, the civilization I’m talking about was the Islamic world from the year 800 to 1600, which included the Ottoman Empire and the courts of Baghdad, Damascus and Cairo, and enlightened rulers like Suleiman the Magnificent.
Carly noted that, Although we are often unaware of our indebtedness to this other civilization, its gifts are very much a part of our heritage. The technology industry would not exist without the contributions of Arab mathematicians.
Sustainability, diversity and courage — led to 800 years of invention and prosperity.
The Hewlett CEO concluded that, In dark and serious times like this, we must affirm our commitment to building societies and institutions that aspire to this kind of greatness.
Bashir Habeeb @knowislam.com.ng